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Artificial Intelligence: By Prof. Michio Kaku
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Summary
By Prof. Michio Kaku Dr. Michio Kaku is professor of theoretical physics at university of New York. He answers questions like how long will it take for Artificial intelligence to come? How fast will computers be after 50 to 100 years? In 1965 Intel co-founder Gordon Moore predicted that the number of transistors on a chip will double about every two years. This was popularly known as Moore’s law. Moore’s law has held true since 1965. According to Prof. Kaku in 20 years Moore’s law is going to collapse and Silicon Valley could become a rust belt. It could possibly be the end of age of silicon and perhaps the beginning of a new generation of computers called quantum computers which is now exciting the world and igniting the imagination of physicists around the world. Quantum computer is the ultimate computer, it computes on atoms and just recently there was a scientific break through that made headlines in the scientific world. The most advanced quantum computer now computing on 7 atoms proved that 3 times 5 is equal to fifteen. Once physicists begin to compute on a few million atoms, it will be possible to break any code that the CIA can manufacture. Even CIA took note of this and is being very cautious about this new technology. However this will take about 20 to 30 years. The physical laws at quantum level are very different; things like uncertainty play a major road block and make it difficult to make something that is stable. This is precisely why the age of silicon will end in 20 years. For example the thinnest layer in a Pentium chip is about 20 atoms across and in about 15 to 20 years it will be 5 atoms across. At that point it is difficult to know where the electron is anymore, due to the uncertainty principle the electron could be outside the wire or inside the, in other words chip will get a short circuit. Therefore silicon is unstable at quantum level. This is the reason Moore’s law can not be sustained continually for ever.
On the other hand quantum computers which operate at that level consist totally of atoms that are spinning like a top and are arranged in a sequence. By shooting laser beams or radio signals and by looking at their reflection of these atoms a quantum calculation can be performed faster than any known computer. Now the question is does it really take such computing power to achieve artificial intelligence? Hypothetically if Moore’s law is projected to 50 years from now, it is possible to compute at about 500 trillion bytes per second, that is the speed of human thought. But it is not mere speed that makes a human thought what it is, there are two basic problems with robots, first is vision and second is common sense. Current most advanced computers and most advanced robots have the intelligence of a retarded cockroach. Few years ago the Mars-rover on Mars had the distinction of being our most advanced robot on a distant world. It would take the Mars-rover about an hour to walk across a room. Prof. Kaku who is author of ‘Hyperspace’ mentions in his book ‘Visions’ that 50 years from now robots could become little bit dangerous. They may begin to start to exceed the capability of a human brain in certain areas. He suggests that in the future it might become necessary to implant a chip in their brain, once they start to have dreams about taking over, the chip will shut them off and we will pull the plug on these computers.
Summary: Prof. Michio Kaku talks about end of age of silicon and perhaps the beginning of a new generation of computers called quantum computers. How quantum computers might play an important role in achieving artificial intelligence.
Keywords: artificial, intelligence, AI, michio, kaku, quantum, computers, future, robots
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